訂報專線:02-22360102 分機218
首頁 人物/老師 學術/教學 政策/法規 產學/合作 校園/創新 競賽/服務 生涯/公職 學習/數位 藝文/漫畫 國際高教版 大陸高教區
 台灣立報 > 綜合 > 正文

極右波濤襲捲挪威:攻擊平民作為 安全專家始料未及

2011-7-27 23:37 作者:本報訊

114

加入書籤:

策劃、編譯■李威撰、謝雯伃

挪威22日爆發二戰以來最嚴重的暴力事件,共造成76人喪生,

這起血腥屠殺除了揭露長期對伊斯蘭教的偏見外,

更指出西方社會對新移民的敵意。

■在挪威靠近烏托亞島的一處沿岸上,一名婦女用鮮花向罹難者致意。(圖文/路透)

蓋達組織策劃的911事件距今已10年,極右派激進分子所為的挪威爆炸案及槍擊案,使得歐洲面臨新型非法軍事威脅的風險正逐步提升。

A report that Norway's bomb and gun rampage may be the work of a far-right (1) militant confronts Europe with the possibility that a new paramilitary threat is emerging, a decade after al Qaeda's September 11 attacks.

一位分析師將挪威的攻擊事件比喻為歐洲版的「奧克拉荷馬市爆炸案」。1995年,美國右翼激進分子麥克維,在奧克拉荷馬市的一棟聯邦大樓內引爆卡車炸彈,造成168人死亡。

One analyst called the attacks possibly Europe's "Oklahoma City" moment, a reference to American right-wing militant Timothy McVeigh who detonated a truck bomb at a federal building in Oklahoma City in 1995, killing 168 people.

許多西歐國家的警方擔憂,反穆斯林與反移民的偏狹思維,以及嚴峻的經濟問題等刺激,將造成極右派情緒持續升高。

Police forces in many western European countries worry about rising far-right sentiment, fueled by a toxic mix of anti-Muslim and anti-immigrant bigotry (2) and increasing economic hardship.

挪威獨立電視台TV2於23日報導,犯案後已遭逮捕的挪威籍男子與右派極端主義有密切關係。紐約大學倫敦分校的安全研究專家賽格爾表示:「若嫌犯確實與右翼分子有所關聯,歐洲更史無前例發生極右派攻擊事件,對斯堪地那維亞半島而言,十分值得關切。」

Independent Norwegian television TV2 reported on Saturday that the Norwegian man detained after the attacks had links to right-wing extremism (3). "If true this would be pretty significant - such a far-right attack in Europe, and certainly Scandinavia, would be unprecedented," said Hagai Segal, a security specialist at New York University in London.

「這會是奧克拉荷馬爆炸案的歐洲/斯堪地那維亞半島翻版。主事者是與特定團體有關聯的極端反政府主義者,以攻擊政府所在之建築及政府機關為目的,表明衝著政府而來。」

"It would be the European/Scandinavian equivalent of Oklahoma City - an attack by a individual (with extremist anti-government views, linked to certain groups) aimed at the government by attacking its buildings/institutions."

歐盟警政單位歐洲警政署2010年一份安全報告中指出,在期間歐洲大陸上並無任何右翼恐怖組織活動。

A report by European police agency Europol on security in 2010 said that there was no right-wing terrorism on the continent in that period.

右翼宣傳技術越來越專業
GROWING PROFESSIONALISM

然而,該報告也提到極右派包裝反猶太及仇外情緒的宣傳愈趨專業,在社群網絡更是日益活躍。報告更指出:「雖然右翼極端主義的威脅日益消退,且其犯罪率相對較低,但是其文宣和組織的專業化顯示,右翼極端主義者有意要散播自己的意識形態,對歐盟成員而言仍是威脅。」

But it added the far right was becoming very professional at producing online propaganda of an anti-Semitic and xenophobic (4) nature and was increasingly active in online social networking. "Although the overall threat from right-wing extremism appears to be on the wane and the numbers of right-wing extremist criminal offences are relatively low, the professionalism in their propaganda and organization shows that right-wing extremist groups have the will to enlarge and spread their ideology and still pose a threat in EU member states," it said.

右翼極端主義的公開宣言常會觸發極端左翼組織的反對運動。這類衝突無可避免地會演變為肢體衝突。2010年5月,瑞典有一名極右派支持者在一場由白人主義運動所主辦的示威活動中遭到刺傷。一名運動人士被依加重攻擊行為和謀殺未遂逮捕。

Public manifestations of right-wing extremism can often provoke counter-activity by extreme left-wing groups. Such confrontations invariably result in physical violence. In May 2010, a far-right supporter was assaulted and knifed in Sweden during a demonstration staged by a white supremacist (5) movement. An activist was arrested on suspicion of aggravated assault and attempted murder.

瑞典安全部在網站上表示,所謂的「白人勢力」事件是懷抱右翼極端主義看法的個人、團體及網絡所策動的行為,準備好要運用暴力達到政治目的。

The Swedish Security Service says on its website that the so-called White Power scene is made up individuals, groups and networks with right-wing extremist views prepared to use violence for political gain.

2011年2月挪威警政署公開出版的2011國家安全展望報告中,已預見未來情勢「增添不確定性」。其中一部分原因在於,2011年右翼激進分子預期可能會提高其行動層級。

In an unclassified 2011 national security outlook published by the Norway Police Security Service (PST) in February 2011, the service said it saw a picture of "increased uncertainty." Part of that was due to what it called an expected increased level of activity in 2011 by far-right militants.

報告指出:「挪威極右派極端主義者與瑞典極右派極端主義者保持聯繫,同時也與歐洲其他極右派主義者團體互通聲氣,挪威的極右派甚至與俄羅斯極端主義者有所接觸。」

"Norwegian far-right extremists are in contact with Swedish far-right extremists, as well as with other far-right extremist groups in Europe. Contact also takes place between Norwegian and Russian far-right extremists," it said.

「部分反伊斯蘭團體行動層級的提升可能會導致對立和不安感加深,尤其是在紀念日或示威活動期間。」

"An increased level of activity among some anti-Islamic groups could lead to increased polarization and unease, especially during, and in connection with, commemorations and demonstrations."

安全專家賽格爾對22日發生的爆炸案及槍擊案的看法如下:「若這次攻擊確實由國內的極右分子所為,其手段和攻擊性的確令人感到震驚。試圖暗殺挪威總理並不與任何極端主義者行動範疇脫勾,但以這種方式殘殺民眾,對於極右/種族優越論者,尤其是歐洲人而言顯得格外不尋常。」

Security specialist Segal said of Friday's bombing and shootings: "The tactics and actuality of these attacks would be quite striking if carried out by a domestic far-right actor - trying to kill Norway's PM is one thing and not surprising from any extremist elements, but killing average citizens in this manner is very, very unusual indeed for far-right/supremacists, and certainly for ones in Europe."

(路透 Reuters)


關鍵字詞
Key Words

1. far-right  

(a.) 極右派的 

2. bigotry  

(n.) 偏執

3. extremism  

(n.) 極端主義

4. xenophobic

(a.) 排外的、仇外的

5. supremacist 

(n.) 種族優越論