訂報專線:02-22360102 分機218
首頁 人物/老師 學術/教學 政策/法規 產學/合作 校園/創新 競賽/服務 生涯/公職 學習/數位 藝文/漫畫 國際高教版 大陸高教區
 台灣立報 > 綜合 > 正文

退休方案喬不攏 法國百萬大罷工

2010-10-20 22:58 作者:路透

58

加入書籤:

策劃、編譯■李威撰 謝雯伃 圖■路透

為顧全歐元區所有國家經濟體質健全,許多成員國致力於打消經濟赤字,

但在同一時間,民主赤字的問題卻愈發嚴重。

自6月以來,許多法國民眾為反對退休金改革而走上街頭,

儘管多數民意不支持沙柯吉的改革,數百萬人投入到政治參與上,

都無法動搖政府的強硬立場,

雖然國會將通過改革案,但法國人民已經表示,抗議行動不會就此打住。


針對總統沙柯吉主導的退休改革計畫,法國各城市16日有超過百萬名民眾走上街頭,進行最新一波示威活動。同時,機場燃油供應因為煉油廠罷工而吃緊。

A million or more people marched in cities across France on Saturday in the latest protest against President Nicolas Sarkozy's flagship pension reform1, and refinery2 strikes squeezed fuel at airports.

■19日在法國南特的一場抗議退休金改革的抗議中,一名高中學生手持標語,上頭寫著:「咆哮」。10月19日是法國2個月內,面臨到的第6天全國性大罷工。工會試圖逼迫法國政府放棄不受民眾歡迎的退休金改革。法國最新出爐的一份民調顯示,有71%的受訪者支持19日的罷工遊行,僅18%反對。(圖文/路透)

法民眾反對提高退休年齡

法國政府表示,上週末參與反對提高退休年齡遊行的人數明顯減少;不過,工會表示,參與人數很穩定。工會也誓言,在19日參議院對退休改革法案進行最後表決之前,將持續施使其終止放棄該計畫。

The government said turnout was down significantly on a rally last weekend against the push to raise the retirement age, but unions said the numbers were stable and vowed to maintain pressure to drop the plans ahead of a Senate vote on Tuesday.

16日的遊行僅爆發零星衝突,這次遊行是鐵路和煉油工會連續5天罷工的高潮。這波罷工為法國中央偏右政府累積不少壓力。

Only minor scuffles were reported during Saturday's marches, which came on top of five-day old rail and refinery strikes which have piled pressure on the center-right government.

一條飛航燃油主要供給管線16日恢復供油,緩解了巴黎近郊各機場的壓力。然而,全法煉油廠持續一週的罷工,從下星期開始會造成燃油供給的匱乏。

Jet fuel supply was restored to a key pipeline3 on Saturday, easing the pressure at Paris airports, but week-long strikes at all France's refineries could pinch supply hard from next week.

一名工會發言人表示,屢屢在法國各種示威中扮演靈魂人物的卡車司機,也從17日傍晚開始封鎖道路。

Truck drivers, the big guns of French protests, will start to block roads from Sunday evening, a union spokesman said.

不過,透過國會主導改革的法國勞工部長沃斯表示,他認為大眾已經漸漸明白政府所要傳達的訊息了。

But Labor Minister Erich Woerth, who is piloting the changes through parliament, said he thought the government's message was beginning to get through.

「參與的人數很明顯地減少了,不過還是有許多民眾走上街頭。」他在法國i-TELE電視台上表示。「我想,法國民眾已清楚認知,退休改革是不可或缺、勢在必行。」

"The turnout is clearly down, but there are still a lot of people in the street," he said on i-Tele. "I think the French people have understood that pension reform is essential and necessary," he said.

沙柯吉已決意堅守立場,推行提高退休年齡、阻止退休金赤字不斷膨脹等政策。然而,工會視這次改革為不公平之舉,已發動長達數週的示威活動,嘗試迫使沙柯吉打退堂鼓。

Sarkozy is determined to stand firm on his plans to raise the retirement age and stem a ballooning pension shortfall, but unions view the reform as unfair and have staged weeks of demonstrations to try to force him to back down.

法國總工會和法國民主工會聯盟表示,這波大規模示威,從土魯斯到魯恩,共有250萬到300萬名民眾加入街頭抗議的行列。相較於10月2日舉辦的週末示威,和12日據稱有350萬人次參與的示威活動相比,這次參與人數有所減少。

France's CGT and CFDT unions said between 2.5 million and 3 million people joined street demonstrations from Toulouse to Rouen, down from the last weekend march on October 2 and also from a Tuesday protest unions said was joined by 3.5 million.

法國政府統計,16日的參與人數為85萬人,比10月2日的89.9萬人來得少。這次遊行參與人數最多的是巴黎,然而參與群眾的情緒很快樂,遊行伴隨著轟轟作響的音樂、嗚嗚的喇叭聲和吟唱歌聲。警方僅因為幾起小型爭端,零星逮捕幾十人。

19日在靠近波爾多的巴森,法國警方站在抗議群眾對面,保護油庫的出入口並護送油罐車。法國能源部部長波魯19日表示,13,000座加油站中,不到4,000座加油站等待燃油補給。19日是法國2個月內,面臨到的第6天全國性大罷工。工會試圖逼迫法國政府放棄不受民眾歡迎的提高退休年齡的退休金改革。(圖文/路透)

The government counted 850,000 marchers, down from 899,000 on October 2. The biggest crowds were in Paris, but the mood was upbeat with music blaring, horns honking and chanting. A few dozen arrests were made following minor disturbances.

罷工威脅交通與航班

法國民航局發言人表示,從法國北部通往巴黎的主要輸油管已恢復供應,這表示戴高樂國際機場到下週結束之前,都有足夠的燃料支援飛機起降。

A spokesman for France's civil aviation authority said the fuel flow through a key pipeline to Paris from northern France had been restored, meaning Charles de Gaulle international airport now has ample fuel until the end of next week.

煉油廠罷工上週造成輸油管燃油提供量縮減,導致戴高樂機場在16日稍早時,僅剩2天的燃油儲量。法國另一主要機場歐利機場,也僅餘幾天的儲量。

An oil refinery strike which cut supply to the pipeline last week had left the airport looking earlier on Saturday at just two days' worth of fuel stocks. France's other main airport, Orly, has fuel reserves for several days.

工會計畫,在參議院最後表決退休法案的前一天,也就是19日,發動另一波大型示威活動和全國罷工。目前法國國會已通過當中主要條款。

Unions have set their next big protest rally and nationwide strike for Tuesday, the day before a Senate vote on the pension bill, whose key clauses have already passed through parliament.

法國12個煉油廠自12日開始全面罷工,以此威脅政府,因為若法國主要機場的燃油不足,將會讓政府相當頭疼。一週以來,歐利機場已因為工人參與罷工,被迫取消部分班機。

Open-ended strikes at France's 12 refineries since last Tuesday threaten to cause the government a huge headache if fuel dries up at France's main airports. Orly already had to ground some flights this week due to striking runway workers.

為權益堅持到底

富拉德是法國總工會對道達爾石油天然氣公司的協調人,他向《路透》表示,除非政府放棄退休法案,否則道達爾煉油廠的員工不會重返工作崗位。「我們要解決這個問題的決心日益明確。」他說。「卡車司機也會加入我們……我們會堅持到最後。」

The CGT union coordinator for oil company Total, Charles Foulard, told Reuters workers at Total refineries would not return to work unless the government withdrew the pension bill: "There is toughening of resolve," he said. "The truck drivers are going to join us ... We will go till the end."

由於煉油廠罷工,加上法國地中海油港的罷工和臨時儲油庫的封鎖,法國有2%加油站的燃油供應受到影響。

The refinery strikes, combined with unrelated strikes at Mediterranean oil ports and temporary fuel depot blockades, have hit supply at nearly 2 percent of France's petrol stations.

法國經濟部長拉加德表示,全法1萬3千個加油站中,只有230個受罷工影響。法國政府表示,目前的燃油儲量可讓全國使用1個月。她向RTL電台表示:「我們確定有存量」、「民眾毋需恐慌。」

Economy Minister Christine Lagarde said only 230 out of a total 13,000 petrol stations were affected. The government says its fuel stocks would last the nation a month. "We have reserves," she told RTL radio. "People mustn't panic."

沙柯吉表示,要阻止法國退休金帳戶在2020年之前累積達500億歐元(約新台幣2兆1,473億元)的赤字,他所提出的改革方案是唯一的辦法。

Sarkozy says his reform is the only way to stop the annual pension shortfall swelling to 50 billion ($70 billion) by 2020.

拉加德向RTL電台表示,在兩年內將最低退休年限和可領取全額退休金的年齡分別提高到62歲和67歲,將會比提高退休金繳納金額,或是縮減目前法國1,500萬依靠退休津貼人口的福利,來得更為緩和。

Lagarde told RTL that gradually lifting the minimum and full retirement ages by two years, to 62 and 67 respectively, would be less painful than raising pension contributions or trimming4 benefits for the 15 million people in France on pensions.

不過,參與罷工的各工會,要求在退休制度大改革中擁有發言權。「我們有數百萬支持並相信我們的民眾走上街頭。」法國民主工會聯盟領導人查克表示。「唯一阻礙國家發展的就是政府。」

But unions are demanding a say in the pension overhaul. "We have several million people in the street who support us and believe in us," said CFDT union leader Francois Chereque. "The only one blocking the country is the government."

由於擔憂16日的遊行出現暴力衝突,法國當局嚴加戒備。一名年輕示威者在早幾日的示威活動中受傷後,巴黎警方已接到命令,不得使用橡皮子彈。

French authorities were on alert for signs of violence on Saturday. Police in Paris had orders to not use rubber bullets, after a youth protester was injured by one during the week.

法國的傳統就是透過街頭抗爭去否決不受歡迎的政府計畫;然而,民調顯示,法國民眾開始接受,與其他歐洲國家一樣延遲退休年紀,將是不可避免的事實。各工會21日將重新集結,討論進一步的行動。

France has a tradition of overpowering unpopular government proposals through street militancy5, though polls suggest people are coming to terms with the fact that delaying retirement, in line with other European countries, is becoming inevitable.Unions will reconvene on Thursday to discuss further action.

(路透Reuters)


TAG: 方案 退休